The University of Wisconsin-Madison is your source for research-based information in support of Meat HACCP programs.



Critical Limit Validation

  • Appendix A – FSIS Cooking Guideline for Meat and Poultry Products (2021) (Cooking)
  • Appendix B – FSIS Stabilization Guideline for Meat and Poultry Products (2021) (Cooling)
  • Fermentation Degree Hour Scientific Support [Blue Ribbon Task Force]
  • Beef Jerky – Critical Limit Summary for Whole Muscle Beef Jerky  (University of Wisconsin) (Research paper)
  • Shelf Stability of Fully Cooked, RTE Meat Products (CL Summary) (University of Wisconsin  )*
  • THERM – Raw Products Critical Limit Table (University of Wisconsin)* supports temporary non-refrigerated holding of raw meat and poultry products
  • Tompkins Paper (Scientific Justification for Low Temperature Critical Limits) (Handout)

*Research publications linked below.

Food Safety Support 

Research Publications*

Raw Product – THERM

Pork (Table 3), Beef (Table 4), Poultry (Table 5): Ingham, S.C., M.A. Fanslau, G.M. Burnham, B.H. Ingham, J.P. Norback, and D.W. Schaffner. 2007. Predicting pathogen growth during short-term temperature abuse of raw pork, beef, and poultry products: use of an isothermal-based predictive tool. Journal of Food Protection 70(6): 1445-1456.  Here

Sausage (Table 3): Ingham, S.C., B.H. Ingham, D. Borneman, E. Jaussaud, E.L. Schoeller, N. Hoftiezer, L. Schwartzburg, G.M. Burnham, and J.P. Norback. 2009. Predicting pathogen growth during short-term temperature abuse of raw sausage. Journal of Food Protection 72(1): 75-84. Here

Tompkin, R.B. 1996. The significance of time-temperature growth of foodborne pathogens during refrigeration at 40-50°F. Presented during the Joint FSIS/FDA Conference on Time/Temperature. November 18, Washington, DC. Here

Shelf Stability  of Fully Cooked Meat Products Based on pH and Water Activity

  1. Ingham, S.C., D.L. Borneman, C. Ané, and B.H. Ingham.  2010.  Predicting growth‐no growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum‐packaged ready‐to‐eat meats. Journal of Food Protection 73: 708‐714. Here
  2. Borneman, D.L., S.C. Ingham, and C. Ane.  2009.  Predicting growth – no growth of Staphylococcus aureus on vacuum‐packaged ready‐to‐eat meats.  Journal of Food Protection 72: 539‐548. Here
  3. Ingham, S.C., G. Searls, S. Mohanan, and D.R. Buege.  2006.  Survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum‐packaged beef jerky and related products stored at 21°C.  Journal of Food Protection.  69: 2263‐2267. Here
  4. Ingham, S.C., D.R. Buege, B.K. Dropp, and J.A. Losinski.  2004.  Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of ready‐to‐eat meat products processed by drying, fermentation, and/or smoking. Journal of Food Protection  67: 2698‐2702. Here
  5. Microorganisms in Food 5: Characteristics of Microbial Pathogens. ICMSF. Blackie Academic & Professional, New York. Here